**Common Lisp the Language, 2nd Edition**

Each of the functions in this section requires that its arguments all be numbers; to call one with a non-number is an error. Unless otherwise specified, each works on all types of numbers, automatically performing any required coercions when arguments are of different types.

**[Function]**

`+ &rest numbers`

This returns the sum of the arguments. If there are no arguments, the result
is `0`, which is an identity for this operation.

**[Function]**

`- number &rest more-numbers`

The function `-`, when given one argument, returns the negative
of that argument.

The function `-`, when given more than one argument, successively subtracts
from the first argument all the others, and returns the result.
For example, `(- 3 4 5)` => `-6`.

**[Function]**

`* &rest numbers`

This returns the product of the arguments.
If there are no arguments, the result
is `1`, which is an identity for this operation.

**[Function]**

`/ number &rest more-numbers`

The function `/`, when given more than one argument, successively divides
the first argument by all the others and returns the result.

It is generally accepted that it is an error for any argument other than the
first to be zero.

With one argument, `/` reciprocates the argument.

It is generally accepted that it is an error in this case for the argument
to be zero.

`/` will produce a ratio if the mathematical quotient of two integers
is not an exact integer. For example:

(/ 12 4) => 3 (/ 13 4) => 13/4 (/ -8) => -1/8 (/ 3 4 5) => 3/20

To divide one integer by another producing an integer result,
use one of the functions `floor`, `ceiling`, `truncate`,
or `round`.

If any argument is a floating-point number, then the rules of floating-point contagion apply.

(quotient 1.0 2.0) => 0.5 but (quotient 1 2) => 0

In contrast, the Common Lisp function `/` produces these results:

(/ 1.0 2.0) => 0.5 and (/ 1 2) => 1/2

In practice `quotient` is used only when one is sure that both arguments
are integers, *or* when one is sure that at least one argument
is a floating-point number. `/` is tractable for its purpose
and works for *any* numbers.

**[Function]**

`1+ number `

`(1+ x)` is the same as

`(1- x)` is the same as

**[Macro]**

`incf place [delta] `

The number produced by the form *delta*
is added to (`incf`) or subtracted from (`decf`)
the number in the generalized variable named by *place*,
and the sum is stored back into *place* and returned.
The form *place* may be any form acceptable
as a generalized variable to `setf`.
If *delta* is not supplied, then the number in *place* is changed
by `1`.
For example:

(setq n 0) (incf n) => 1 and now n => 1 (decf n 3) => -2 and now n => -2 (decf n -5) => 3 and now n => 3 (decf n) => 2 and now n => 2

The effect of `(incf place delta)`
is roughly equivalent to

(setfplace(+placedelta))

except that the latter would evaluate any subforms of *place*
twice, whereas `incf` takes care to evaluate them only once.
Moreover, for certain *place* forms `incf` may be
significantly more efficient than the `setf` version.

X3J13 voted in March 1988 (PUSH-EVALUATION-ORDER)
to clarify order of evaluation (see section 7.2).

**[Function]**

`conjugate number`

This returns the complex conjugate of *number*. The conjugate
of a non-complex number is itself. For a complex number `z`,

(conjugate z) == (complex (realpart z) (- (imagpart z)))

For example:

(conjugate #C(3/5 4/5)) => #C(3/5 -4/5) (conjugate #C(0.0D0 -1.0D0)) => #C(0.0D0 1.0D0) (conjugate 3.7) => 3.7

**[Function]**

`gcd &rest integers`

This returns the greatest common divisor of all the arguments,
which must be integers. The result of `gcd` is always a non-negative
integer.
If one argument is given, its absolute value is returned.
If no arguments are given, `gcd` returns `0`,
which is an identity for this operation.
For three or more arguments,

(gcdabc...z) == (gcd (gcdab)c...z)

Here are some examples of the use of `gcd`:

(gcd 91 -49) => 7 (gcd 63 -42 35) => 7 (gcd 5) => 5 (gcd -4) => 4 (gcd) => 0

**[Function]**

`lcm integer &rest more-integers`

This returns the least common multiple of its arguments,
which must be integers.
The result of `lcm` is always a non-negative integer.
For two arguments that are not both zero,

(lcmab) == (/ (abs (*ab)) (gcdab))

If one or both arguments are zero,

(lcma0) == (lcm 0a) == 0

For one argument, `lcm` returns the absolute value of that argument.
For three or more arguments,

(lcmabc...z) == (lcm (lcmab)c...z)

Some examples:

(lcm 14 35) => 70 (lcm 0 5) => 0 (lcm 1 2 3 4 5 6) => 60

Mathematically, `(lcm)` should return infinity. Because Common Lisp
does not have a representation for infinity, `lcm`, unlike `gcd`,
always requires at least one argument.

X3J13 voted in January 1989
(LCM-NO-ARGUMENTS)
to specify that `(lcm) => 1`.

This is one of my biggest boners. The identity for `lcm` is of course 1,
not infinity, and so `(lcm)` ought to have been defined to return 1.
Sorry about that, though in point of fact very few users have complained
to me that this mistake in the first edition has cramped their programming style.

AI.Repository@cs.cmu.edu